Aim: How did monarchies in England and France increase their royal power?

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Global 9

Chapter 9 Notes

The High Middle Ages

Section 1: Growth of Royal Power in England and France
Aim: How did monarchies in England and France increase their royal power?


Notes/ Vocabulary

Main Idea:

Strong Monarchs in England

Evolving Traditions of Government

Limited Power of the King

Royal success on France

Clash with the Pope

During the High Middle Ages, as economic conditions began to improve, feudal monarchs started to increase and centralize their power.

  • During the early Middle Ages, Angles, Saxons and Vikings settled in England

  • Norman Conquest 1066

    • Anglo- Saxon King Edward dies without an heir

    • Brother in law Harold chosen as king

    • Duke William of Normandy claimed throne

  • Battle of Hastings: William defeats Harold and becomes known as William the Conqueror

    • Granted fiefs to Church and barons, but kept most of the land

    • Required vassals to swear allegiance to him

    • Domesday Book: census that listed every castle, field and pigpen in England

    • Built efficient tax collecting system

    • Created royal exchequer: treasury

  • Henry II

    • Sent out justices to enforce royal laws, jury system

    • Became known as common law: same for all people

    • Growing royal power conflicted with church

    • Thomas Beckett, archbishop of Canterbury opposed Henry’s rule and was murdered

    • Pilgrims go to his tomb

  • Since William the Conqueror, English Kings held lands in France

  • King John inherits throne

    • Taxed nobles heavily to finance wars

    • Lost wars and thus lost land to King Phillip II of France and support of nobles

    • Pope Innocent III excommunicated King over selecting a new archbishop and placed England under interdict

  • 1215: Nobles rebelled and forced John to sign Magna Carta

    • Limited the power of the King

    • Asserted nobles had basic certain rights, Rights eventually extend to all citizens

    • King needed to consult Parliament about taxation

    • Parliament = Legislative Branch

      • Development of bicameral legislature

      • House of Lords

      • House of Commons

    • Parliament gains “power of the purse”

    • Checks power of the King

  • Had patchwork of territories in Middle Ages

  • The Capetians

  • 987: Hugh Capet elected king: chosen because he was too weak

    • began to increase royal power

    • Made throne hereditary

    • Won support of Church

    • Built effective bureaucracy

    • Collected taxes and imposed royal laws

    • Gained support of middle class

  • Philip Augustus

    • Used paid middle class officials for government positions

    • Granted charters

    • Standing army

    • New national tax

  • Louis IX: Saint Louis: model ruler

    • Generous, noble, chivalrous

    • Persecuted Jews and Muslims

  • Philip IV battled with Pope Boniface VIII

    • Tried to collect taxes from clergy

    • New French Pope elected and move papacy to Avignon

    • Called Babylonian Captivity

  • Estates General: legislative body created on 1302

  • Represented three classes, clergy, nobles and townspeople

  • Never gained power of purse

Section 2: The Holy Roman Empire and the Church

Aim: Why did Holy Roman Emperors fail to build a unified state? What issues led to clashes between emperors and popes?


Notes/ Vocabulary

Main Idea:

The Holy Roman Empire

Two Determined Rulers

New Struggles

The Church Under Innocent III

With secular rulers advancing their own claims to power, explosive conflicts erupted between the Holy Roman Emperors and the popes of the Catholic Church.

  • After Charlemagne’s death, Germany became divided into various states

  • 936: Duke Otto I took the title King of Germany

    • Worked closely with church by appointing bishops to government job

    • defeated a rebellion for the Church: crowned Holy Roman Emperor

    • seen as protector of Italy

    • key conflict arose over who would control appointments to high Church offices

  • Pope Gregory VII banned practice of lay investiture

    • Under this practice, a person who is not a member of the church appointed and invested bishops to their church offices

    • Since bishops were invested with fiefs (land) Henry IV felt he could invest bishops

    • Gregory excommunicated Henry

    • Princes of Germany began to rebel

    • Henry marched to Rome and was forgiven

  • Concordat of Worms 1122:

    • Church had the sole power to elect and invest bishops with spiritual authority

    • Emperor able to Invest them with fiefs

  • Fredrick Barbarossa (Fredrick I) fought Italian Northern states

  • Was defeated by Lombards

  • Fredrick II

  • Also tried to take over city states, but failed

  • 1200’s: Roman Catholic Church reached its peak of power

  • The pope, “stands between God and man, lower than God, but higher than man, who judges all, and is judges by no one.”

  • Excommunicated King John, England interdict ,Battles Philip II, Fredrick II, won both, crusade against the Albigensians

Section 3: Europeans Look Outward

Aim: What were the causes and effects of the Crusades?


Notes/ Vocabulary

Main Idea:

The World in 1050

The Crusades

Reasons why people went on the Crusades

Impact of the Crusades

The Crusading Spirit and the Reconquista

Due to the Crusades, Western Europeans learned the world was much larger than they originally though.

  • Western Europe isolated, Middle East and Asia thriving

  • Middle East: Growth and Expansion of Islam

  • Byzantine civilization in Eastern Europe

  • 1050: Seljuk Turks migrating from Central Asia

  • The Seljuk Turks overran Palestine and the Holy Land (Jerusalem) from the Byzantine Empire

  • 1095: Emperor Alexius asked Pope Urban for support

  • Council of Clermont: Urban called for Crusade to free the Holy Land from Muslim rulers

    • Taking up the cross: thousands of knights took up the cross

    • Knights hoped to win land and wealth

    • Ordinary people, serfs, saw it as adventure

    • Popes hoped to increase their power

  • 1099: only the first Crusade achieved its original goal

  • Divided into four states

  • 1187: Muslim ruler Saladin took over Crusader states

  • Did reopen the cities to religious pilgrims

  • Fourth Crusade: crusaders captured and looted Constantinople

  • Crusades failed in their chief goal to recapture the Holy Land

  • Left bitter religious hatred behind

  • Positive Effects

    • Increased triad between Europe and Middle East

    • Fabric, spices, perfumes

    • Merchants established fleets from cities in Italy

    • Church’s papal power was at its height

    • Increased power of the monarchs: increased taxes

    • Growth of a money economy

    • Serfdom decreased

  • Europeans realized there was a larger world out there

  • Marco Polo traveled to China: brought back new ideas

  • Reconquista: reconquering of Spain by Christians

    • Christian warriors battled Muslims in Spain

  • Ferdinand and Isabella pushed out last of Muslims in 1492

    • Wanted to bring religious and political unity to Spain

  • Set up Inquisition

    • Church court to try people of heresy

    • Policy destroyed Muslim and Jewish populations

    • Educated and skilled groups left Spain

Section 4: Learning and Culture Flourish

Aim: What achievements in learning, literature, and the arts characterized the late and High Middle Ages?


Notes/ Vocabulary

Main Idea:

Medieval Universities Emerge

Europeans Acquire “New” learning



Architecture and Art

As political and economic conditions improved, the need for education expanded and led to many literary and artistic achievements.

  • Literate people needed for bureaucracies

    • 1100s, schools sprung up around great cathedrals

    • Examples: Bologna, Oxford and Paris

    • Student life

    • 5 a.m for prayer

    • Attend classes until 10, first meal

    • Afternoon classes until 5, supper then studied until bed

    • Teaches dictated and explained Latin texts

  • Liberal arts: arithmetic, geometry, astronomy, music, grammar, rhetoric, logic

  • Women were not allowed to attend universities

    • Could not become doctors, lawyers, or church officials

  • Some women did receive education in covenants and some from noble families received an education example: Christine de Pisan: The City of Ladies argued for women’s education

  • Texts of Ancient Greek and Roman thinkers that were preserved by Muslims were translated into Latin in Western Europe

  • Battle between Aristotle’s use of reason and Church’s accepted traditional teachings

    • Scholasticism: used reason to support Christian beliefs

    • Thomas Aquinas: Summa THeologica, concluded that faith and reason exist in harmony

    • Both lead to truth that God rules over orderly universe

    • Christian faith and Greek philosophy blended together

  • Scholars studied Hippocrates on medicine and Euclid on geometry

  • Science made little progress because truth must fit with church teachings

  • New writings began to appear in vernacular: everyday language such as French, German, Italian

  • Heroic epics: Song of Roland: about chivalry

  • El Cid: Spanish knight who battled Muslims

  • Divine Comedy: Dante Alighieri

    • Imaginary journey through hell and purgatory

    • Journey summarizes Christian ethics and how their actions determine their fate

  • Canterbury Tales: Geoffrey Chaucer

  • Band of pilgrims traveling to Thomas Becket’s tomb

  • Each character appeals to everyday life

  • From Romanesque to Gothic

    • Romanesque churches looked like fortresses with think walls and towers, roof was barrel vault, heavy with no windows, interior dark and gloomy

    • Gothic Style: flying buttresses, higher taller thinner walls, large stained glass windows, spires, carried eye to heaven

  • Religious pictures created to help educate people who were unable to read

  • Churches contained altarpieces, symbolize religious ideas

  • Illumination: intricate designs and paintings of biblical scenes

Section 5: A Time of Crisis

Aim: What new challenges were Europeans facing?


Notes/ Vocabulary

Main Idea:

The Black Death

Upheaval in the Church

The Hundred Years War

Widespread crop failure, famine, plague and war all contributed to the downfall of the late Middle Ages.

  • A global epidemic

    • Sickness bubonic plague: a disease spread by fleas on rats

    • Began in Mongolia In 1200’s, spread to Asia

    • Fleas went from rats to travelers and merchants

    • Killed thousands of people a day

    • Unsanitary towns/ conditions increased the spread

  • Social Upheaval:

    • People turned to witchcraft

    • Christians blamed Jews

  • Economic Results:

    • Economy declined

    • Survivors wanted higher wages, prices also rose

  • Church unable to provide strong leadership during plague

  • Papacy moved to Avignon, France

  • Clergy led lavish lifestyles

  • At one point in time, 3 popes

  • John Wycliffe attacked Church corruption

    • Began to translate Bible into English

  • Jan Hus also led reforms

    • Precursor to other reformers

  • 1337-1454 England and France fought a series of conflicts

    • English kings claimed land in France

    • Longbow helped early English victories

  • Joan of Arc: 1429

    • Saw vision from God to lead French army

    • Won many victories, but was captured and killed for witchcraft

    • French use of the cannon lead to victories

  • Result:

    • French Kings expanded royal power

    • Growth of national armies

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